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Climate Change & Global Warming

Climate Change Week in Review: Week Ending July 20, 2018

Climate Change Week in Review: Week Ending July 20, 2018

This week a respected scientific journal ran a story about the psychology of climate change. Given that carbon emissions and

Energy

All natural? These fracking byproducts could fight water scarcity

All natural? These fracking byproducts could fight water scarcity

One of the biggest freshwater reservoirs in the world is, literally, up in the air.
Let there be water Here’s how the process would work.
Excess gas that otherwise would go to waste could power an engine of a big refrigeration unit.
Water for oil There are many uses for this water, which we believe would be fit for human consumption, including food processing, mining and other industries.
And there are some oil patches, including the Eagle Ford in Texas, where water scarcity is making it challenging to produce oil.
I have calculated that tapping excess gas to capture water would provide one-fifth of the water used in fracking the parched Eagle Ford Shale region in South Texas.
And we cannot see any environmental downsides to giving it a try.
It would work best in areas that are hot and humid, including Texas and other southern states in the U.S., Mexico, Venezuela, Middle East and Africa year-round.
There have been efforts to stop wasting the natural gas produced as a byproduct of oil drilling before.
Other efforts to condense water in the air are underway.

Organic Living

How to Plan a Low-Waste Move

How to Plan a Low-Waste Move

Earth911 is here to help with a list of ideas that will not only shrink the environmental impact of your move, but also help you save time and money and avoid headaches so you can concentrate on more important things — like getting to know your new neighbors.
Know How and Where to Sell Your Stuff A garage sale is one way to get rid of unwanted housewares, clothing, and furniture, but keep in mind that neighborhood sales probably won’t net you much cash.
Keep in mind that these shops won’t take everything you bring in, but you’ll get more money for your items than you would at a yard sale.
Furniture in Good Condition Sites like Craigslist allow you to set your own price for gently used furniture and designate your items for local pickup only to save on carbon emissions.
Schedule a Donation Pickup to Save Time If you plan to donate a sizable chunk of your unwanted stuff, avoid schlepping carloads of belongings across town or renting a moving vehicle and simply schedule a free home pickup from a local charity.
To help inform your decision, use a carbon calculator like TerraPass to estimate the approximate carbon footprint of driving to your destination, and compare this with carbon numbers associated with flying and shipping your belongings separately.
If you’re driving yourself, compare the miles per gallon of a moving van compared to driving your car or truck and hauling a trailer.
Choose Reusable Moving Options Zero-waste moving solutions like Rent a Green Box and BungoBox provide reusable boxes and totes that make it easy to move all your stuff without the waste.
If you don’t have enough, old newspapers and packing paper are still better choices and you can recycle them later.
About two weeks before your move, take inventory of everything in your refrigerator, freezer, and pantry, and start planning your meals around what you have.

Wellness

Yes, you totally can eat clean for less than $100 a week—here’s how

Yes, you totally can eat clean for less than $100 a week—here’s how

“The reason people think it’s expensive is because they think you can only eat organic foods.
“Clean eating is affordable and accessible across all socioeconomic strata.”—Ian K. Smith, MD But with a few smart strategies and some prep work, it’s possible to eat clean for under $100 per week, Dr. Smith says.
This helps keep costs down, while allowing you to meal-prep healthy food to keep on hand all week long.
Yet, one big question still remains—what should you put on your grocery list?
Stock up on these 7 foods to eat clean for less than $100 a week.
“Chicken can be sliced up in salads, on sandwiches, as an entree, in pasta, or grilled with vegetables,” Dr. Smith says.
Lemons Don’t skip out on clean eating’s MVP.
“Lemons can be squeezed into water, squeezed over fish, and used in making salad dressing,” says Dr. Smith.
Wild-caught fish Farm-raised fish can have a higher potential for contamination, depending on the species, so Dr. Smith recommends purchasing wild-caught fish to decrease your exposure to chemicals.
(If you don’t prep your fish within three days of purchase, freeze it.)

Climate Change & Global Warming

Worse and worser claim: More category 5 hurricanes forecasted by scientists

Worse and worser claim: More category 5 hurricanes forecasted by scientists

“Although Sandy was a Category 3 storm when it made landfall in Cuba, it became the largest Atlantic hurricane on record when measured by diameter, with winds spanning 900 miles,” said Chapman University Climatologist Hesham El-Askary, Ph.D. A Saharan dust event occurring in West Africa weeks before Sandy had formed carried large amounts of mineral dust into the troposphere, filling the tropical wave that became Sandy with aerosols along a majority of its path.
By monitoring dust storms, Dr. El-Askary was able to tie this occurrence to the role it played in the hurricane’s development from a Category 1 to a Category 3 storm.
With this work, he hopes to provide more accurate forecasting for these types of extreme weather occurrences.
### The research, titled “Characterizing the Impact of Aerosols on Pre-Hurricane Sandy” was published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing.
Dr. El-Askary investigates the impact that African dust storms over the Atlantic played in the formation of the tropical storm system that eventually became Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8345587/ Abstract: This study focuses on the role that African dust over the Atlantic had on the persistence of the tropical system that eventually became Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.
On October 8, a Saharan dust event in the Mauritania region of West Africa transported significant amounts of mineral dust into the troposphere and along the path of an easterly wave created by a break in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).
The Terra/Aqua-MODIS satellite observations clearly define the spatial distribution of the coarse/fine aerosols, while the CALIPSO observations of the total attenuated backscatter at 532 nm provide a detailed view of the vertical structure and aerosol types in the dust-laden layer.
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 reanalysis data show the distribution of aerosols along the path of the pre-Sandy wave as well as a second wave that formed north of the ITCZ under different condition.
The second wave, which started in an area of relatively larger aerosol optical depth (AOD), moved into an area with abnormally low convective available potential energy and AOD, subsequently dying out, while the wave that became Sandy had light aerosol loading (AOD between 0.15–0.5) along a majority of its path.
The evidence suggests that aerosols played a nontrivial role in the maintenance of this system until it moved into an environment favorable for cyclogenesis.

Food & Water

Country diary: carp find their quarry but become easy prey in the shallows

Country diary: carp find their quarry but become easy prey in the shallows

In the heat of yet another cloudless summer afternoon the still air in Ashes quarry wobbled in the heat haze.
Blasting, hewing and hauling of limestone ended here 60 years ago.
Since then nature has reclaimed this peaceful mile-long scar in the fellside; today the loudest sound came from chirruping grasshoppers.
The prolonged drought is unlikely to dry up the flooded quarry floor, an olive-green oasis surrounded by parched, yellowing grasses growing in the thin veneer of soil on rock scree.
In the heat of the past week emerald damselflies, Lestes sponsa, have emerged from the shallow pools, fragile ballerinas with forget-me-not blue eyes and slender iridescent bodies darting across the water surface.
Courting pairs chased through the vegetation; others, poised on floating leaves, were already laying eggs.
Then I heard that strange sound again and noticed a dark shape gliding towards me through the water: a foot-long carp.
I watched, astonished, as it approached until it was within touching distance, almost aground in the shallow water and sucking in mouthfuls of silt-laden water around my boots.
That plopping had been the sound of gulping, of this fish feeding and, no doubt, swallowing damselfly nymphs that were close to emergence as adults.
Someone must have released them from a garden pond into the flooded quarry, where the water is now probably warm enough for them to breed.

Conservation & Sustainability

Fossil Fuel Industries Outspend Clean Energy Advocates On Climate Lobbying By 10 To 1

Fossil Fuel Industries Outspend Clean Energy Advocates On Climate Lobbying By 10 To 1

Fossil fuel producers, airlines and electrical utilities outspent environmental groups and the renewable energy industry 10 to 1 on lobbying related to climate change legislation between 2000 and 2016, according to a new analysis released Wednesday.
“We seem to have a public opinion fetish where if we get public opinion to be supportive of climate change legislation, then it’ll happen,” Brulle said.
“My answer to that is, gee, well, we should have gun control legislation then.” During the period examined by the study, expenditures on federal lobbying aimed at climate issues topped $2 billion, representing on average 3.9 percent of annual federal lobbying dollars.
Searching for a dozen key terms ― including “climate change,” “global warming” and “carbon” ― he pinpointed more than 64,100 reports of such lobbying, identified the reports by business sector, and compared those figures to the sectors’ annual overall spending on lobbying.
Many other representatives of major corporate interests lobby the government but keep it under 20 percent of their time.
The climate change denial movement remains powerful if splintered.
Oil giants traditionally funded the network of misinformation outlets seeding doubt about the role of fossil fuels in warming the planet.
The American Petroleum Institute, the oil and gas sector’s top lobbying group, noted the study’s finding that the fossil fuel industry spent nearly 18 percent of all climate lobbying dollars during the period examined, but suggested it wasn’t the whole story.
The EPA under then-Administrator Scott Pruitt started the process to repeal the Clean Power Plan, a federal rule that would have incentivized utilities to use more renewable energy and scale back emissions from coal.
We seem to have a public opinion fetish where if we get public opinion to be supportive of climate change legislation, then it’ll happen.

Alternative Energy

LO3 Energy Brand joins Global Energy Blockchain Affiliates

LO3 Energy Brand joins Global Energy Blockchain Affiliates

A developer of the pilot Brooklyn Microgrid project is joining a global venture exploring the blockchain potential on energy transactions worldwide.
Exergy, a brand of LO3 Energy, has become an affiliate of the Energy Web Foundation, the company announced Tuesday.
Energy Web Foundation was started by the Rocky Mountain Institute and Austria-based Grid Singularity to create a network testing applications for eventually creating a core blockchain infrastructure.
“Together we are transcending the physical limitations of the legacy electric grid, and bringing choice to consumers.” Exergy is a distributed ledger system combining software and hardware layers, designed to solve the operational issues caused by the growth of renewable energy resources operating within local distributed energy networks.
The EWF blockchain is purpose-built for the energy sector and Tobalaba, its test network, is being actively used by more than 30 companies to build and test their energy blockchain applications.
Other affiliates include Duke Energy, AGL, Exelon, Innogy, Swisspower, Wipro, Sempra Energy, Centrica and Engie.
“The rapid growth of distributed renewable energy resources is creating both an opportunity and a need for standardization in this area and by working together, EWF and Exergy can make the blockchain-for-energy deliver on a global scale.”
L03 Energy was the startup-working with Siemens-initiating the Brooklyn Microgrid project in 2016.
As part of the experiment, Brooklyn owners of solar photovoltaic systems sold their power in the neighborhood using the Ethereum blockchain application without involvement of a utility.
In April, those included new features of the beta release, new affiliates and a sneak peek at its proof-of-concept..

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Conservation & Sustainability

Fossil Fuel Industries Outspend Clean Energy Advocates On Climate Lobbying By 10 To 1

Fossil Fuel Industries Outspend Clean Energy Advocates On Climate Lobbying By 10 To 1

Fossil fuel producers, airlines and electrical utilities outspent environmental groups and the renewable energy industry 10 to 1 on lobbying related to climate change legislation between 2000 and 2016, according to a new analysis released Wednesday.
“We seem to have a public opinion fetish where if we get public opinion to be supportive of climate change legislation, then it’ll happen,” Brulle said.
“My answer to that is, gee, well, we should have gun control legislation then.” During the period examined by the study, expenditures on federal lobbying aimed at climate issues topped $2 billion, representing on average 3.9 percent of annual federal lobbying dollars.
Searching for a dozen key terms ― including “climate change,” “global warming” and “carbon” ― he pinpointed more than 64,100 reports of such lobbying, identified the reports by business sector, and compared those figures to the sectors’ annual overall spending on lobbying.
Many other representatives of major corporate interests lobby the government but keep it under 20 percent of their time.
The climate change denial movement remains powerful if splintered.
Oil giants traditionally funded the network of misinformation outlets seeding doubt about the role of fossil fuels in warming the planet.
The American Petroleum Institute, the oil and gas sector’s top lobbying group, noted the study’s finding that the fossil fuel industry spent nearly 18 percent of all climate lobbying dollars during the period examined, but suggested it wasn’t the whole story.
The EPA under then-Administrator Scott Pruitt started the process to repeal the Clean Power Plan, a federal rule that would have incentivized utilities to use more renewable energy and scale back emissions from coal.
We seem to have a public opinion fetish where if we get public opinion to be supportive of climate change legislation, then it’ll happen.

Conservation & Sustainability

Like to Eat? Then You Should Care About Biodiversity

Like to Eat? Then You Should Care About Biodiversity

It may take generations to achieve this, but it is possible – and it remains vitally important that we do what it takes to make it happen.
Species loss has become an almost daily occurrence.
When it comes to growing food, dung beetles are among the most important insects in the Neotropics, areas that share a large number of plant and animal groups that are scattered from southern Florida and Texas and through the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and throughout most of South America.
In cattle pastures, they’ve been known to bury more than 80 percent of the dung pats.
Scientists are finding that many species of dung beetle are endangered.
We’re not just arresting its decline but restoring species populations, even in and around productive agricultural areas.
Colombian authorities are now talking about decreasing the amount of area used for cattle ranching by more than 20 percent while simultaneously increasing farm productivity.
And we’ve noted similar results in other parts of Latin America, particularly Chiapas state in Mexico, one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots.
With a Healthy Agricultural Systems approach, farming and ranching can be converted from a global environmental problem into the leading edge of an effort to avert looming biological disaster – and farmers themselves can become more productive and profitable.
We simply need to grow it better and in a way that turns the tide away from species loss and toward the restoration and preservation of Earth’s delicate ecological balance.

Conservation & Sustainability

So how’d those avocados handle the searing heatwave?

So how’d those avocados handle the searing heatwave?

A high-pressure cell recently idled over southern California like the lid of Satan’s pressure cooker, wilting residents with record-shattering heat.
Others were trees — including avocado trees.
Turns out that’s too hot for avocados.
Avocado trees are vulnerable to extreme weather (hence the title of May’s cover story, “Are Avocados Toast?”), but Sayer resolved to plant a new avocado orchard because that wasn’t his only concern.
He also has to think about prices and his own ability to adapt.
Sayer, for instance, grows a cover crop that protects roots from the extremes of heat, cold, and rain.
pic.twitter.com/xDAhBAcX0v — Chris Sayer (@pettyranch) July 6, 2018 When the recent heat wave hit, Sayer saw it as a possible preview of what’s to come.
We saw 110.7 degrees on Friday.
Very hot for #avocados.
@savortooth 1/3 pic.twitter.com/2Dms44jVP4 — Chris Sayer (@pettyranch) July 9, 2018 Avocados don’t like temperatures above 100 degrees Fahrenheit, but one of Sayer’s orchards — the one in a cooler clime — was able to hang in there without much suffering.

Conservation & Sustainability

Electric vs. Gasoline Cars

Electric vs. Gasoline Cars

Inasmuch as hybrid and all-electric vehicles have become more popular, it is worth asking if the energy used (and thus CO2 emitted) to make electric motors and lithium batteries is greater than that emitted during the production of gasoline engines for conventional vehicles, potentially discounting the advantages of electric vehicles in mitigating the potential for climate change.
Production- related emissions range from 38 to 356 kg CO2 per kW-hour of battery capacity.
For an electric vehicle with a 30 kW-hr battery pack, this can be equivalent to 4.6 tons of CO2 just for the production of its batteries.
Of course, for both types of vehicles, the energy is used in their operation dwarfs the energy used in their manufacture.
An average gasoline-powered vehicle will release about 33 tons of CO2 during a 100,000-mile lifetime.
Over a similar lifetime, electric vehicles emit about 10-24% less greenhouse warming potential than conventional vehicles, when both the manufacture and operation are considered.
The contribution of electric vehicles (relative to conventional) to greenhouse gas emissions is greatest when they are powered by electricity derived from coal.
See my earlier blog.
Electric vehicles emit no tailpipe pollution; the pollution from power-plants can often be captured at the smoke stack.
This post originally appeared on William H. Schlesinger’s blog Citizen Scientist, published by Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment.

Conservation & Sustainability

The Netherlands Plans To Build World’s First Habitable 3D-Printed Concrete Homes

The Netherlands Plans To Build World’s First Habitable 3D-Printed Concrete Homes

An unassuming field in the Dutch city of Eindhoven is the planned location of the world’s first habitable cluster of 3D-printed concrete homes.
The designs are the shape of a new technology that some experts believe could ultimately transform house construction, using a quicker, cheaper and less environmentally costly process.
“All of a sudden,” he said, “appealing architecture is within reach.” The team has spent €650,000 (about $763,000) on the project so far, including the cost of the printer and a researcher.
But he says there are challenges around developing building and safety checks.
For us there’s a whole learning process as government.” So can this 3D-concrete printing technique revolutionize housing ― in some places, at least?
Eindhoven’s project is one of many experiments across the world.
The American company Icon unveiled a 3D-printed concrete model home in Texas earlier this year, and claims its “Vulcan” printer can print a home in 24 hours for less than $4,000.
We have a systemic problem and either wages need to be higher or government needs to help more by providing more funding.” Land availability is an issue too, in rich countries as much as poorer ones.
“3D printing, innovative construction materials like earth bricks in Africa, and a lot of innovation around bamboo construction in Asia are welcome technological breakthroughs, and making construction cheaper and more uniform is definitely a good step,” she said.
There are technical challenges to a smart computer printing on-site too, says Salet, who couldn’t get a recent print project to work in Dubai.

Conservation & Sustainability

Heat Check

Heat Check

By 8 p.m., Dixon was in the emergency room.
Hunts Point is one of the New York City neighborhoods with the highest risk of heat-related deaths.
“Extreme heat is really becoming one of the most dangerous climate impacts,” says Annel Hernandez with the New York City Environmental Justice Alliance, which has made tackling the urban heat island effect the top priority in its climate justice agenda for this year.
But to save more lives as climate change makes the problem much worse, the city will have to undo decades of urban development that has put many communities of color at risk when the temperature spikes.
Hernandez from the Environmental Justice Alliance says that the New Yorkers who face the brunt of more frequent extreme heat events “live in communities that have already been burdened by polluting infrastructure for a long time.” In other words, heat is an added environmental burden to the same low-income residents and people of color who are already living in contaminated communities.
So people without air conditioning, senior citizens, and anyone who has difficulty getting out and about to find a place to cool down are especially vulnerable during a heat wave.
During this most recent heat advisory, the NYC Environmental Justice Alliance called around 50 different cooling centers in the city to survey how they were operating.
“Any cooling center experiencing issues is immediately taken out of service.” The city releases its list of cooling centers during the first day of a heat wave.
Improving cooling center signage and generally making the facilities more inviting is part of New York City’s $106-million “Cool Neighborhoods” plan, launched last year to mitigate the health risks of extreme heat.
It includes painting surfaces white, planting more trees, creating green roofs, and building other green infrastructure to cool down several neighborhoods.

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Climate Change & Global Warming

Climate Change Week in Review: Week Ending July 20, 2018

Climate Change Week in Review: Week Ending July 20, 2018

This week a respected scientific journal ran a story about the psychology of climate change. Given that carbon emissions and

Climate Change & Global Warming

Worse and worser claim: More category 5 hurricanes forecasted by scientists

Worse and worser claim: More category 5 hurricanes forecasted by scientists

“Although Sandy was a Category 3 storm when it made landfall in Cuba, it became the largest Atlantic hurricane on record when measured by diameter, with winds spanning 900 miles,” said Chapman University Climatologist Hesham El-Askary, Ph.D. A Saharan dust event occurring in West Africa weeks before Sandy had formed carried large amounts of mineral dust into the troposphere, filling the tropical wave that became Sandy with aerosols along a majority of its path.
By monitoring dust storms, Dr. El-Askary was able to tie this occurrence to the role it played in the hurricane’s development from a Category 1 to a Category 3 storm.
With this work, he hopes to provide more accurate forecasting for these types of extreme weather occurrences.
### The research, titled “Characterizing the Impact of Aerosols on Pre-Hurricane Sandy” was published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing.
Dr. El-Askary investigates the impact that African dust storms over the Atlantic played in the formation of the tropical storm system that eventually became Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8345587/ Abstract: This study focuses on the role that African dust over the Atlantic had on the persistence of the tropical system that eventually became Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.
On October 8, a Saharan dust event in the Mauritania region of West Africa transported significant amounts of mineral dust into the troposphere and along the path of an easterly wave created by a break in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).
The Terra/Aqua-MODIS satellite observations clearly define the spatial distribution of the coarse/fine aerosols, while the CALIPSO observations of the total attenuated backscatter at 532 nm provide a detailed view of the vertical structure and aerosol types in the dust-laden layer.
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 reanalysis data show the distribution of aerosols along the path of the pre-Sandy wave as well as a second wave that formed north of the ITCZ under different condition.
The second wave, which started in an area of relatively larger aerosol optical depth (AOD), moved into an area with abnormally low convective available potential energy and AOD, subsequently dying out, while the wave that became Sandy had light aerosol loading (AOD between 0.15–0.5) along a majority of its path.
The evidence suggests that aerosols played a nontrivial role in the maintenance of this system until it moved into an environment favorable for cyclogenesis.

Climate Change & Global Warming

Our phones and gadgets are now endangering the planet

Our phones and gadgets are now endangering the planet

It was just another moment in this long, increasingly strange summer.
Most people seemed to be staring at their phones – in many cases, they were trying to stream a World Cup match, as the 4G signal came and went, and Great Western Railway’s onboard wifi proved to be maddeningly erratic.
And thousands of miles and a few time zones away in Loudoun County, Virginia, one of the world’s largest concentrations of computing power was playing its part in keeping everything I saw ticking over, as data from around the world passed back and forth from its vast buildings.
‘Tsunami of data’ could consume one fifth of global electricity by 2025 Read more But there is a big problem, centred on a power company called Dominion, which supplies the vast majority of Loudoun County’s electricity.
According to a 2017 Greenpeace report, only 1% of Dominion’s total electricity comes from credibly renewable sources: 2% originates in hydroelectric plants, and the rest is split evenly between coal, gas and nuclear power.
If you worry about climate change and a cause celebre such as the expansion of Heathrow airport, it is worth considering that data centres are set to soon have a bigger carbon footprint than the entire aviation industry.
About a decade ago, we were being told to fight climate change by switching off our TVs and stereos.
If the battle is now even more urgent, how does it fit with a world in which router lights constantly flicker, and all the devices we own will be in constant, energy-intensive communication with distant mega-computers?
Green campaigners bemoan the fact that the details of AWS’s electricity consumption and its carbon footprint remain under wraps; on its corporate website, the story of its use of renewable energy suddenly stops in 2016.
Neither the public nor customers are able to obtain any information about their electricity use and CO2 target.” Irrespective of the good work carried out by some tech giants, and whether or not you take seriously projections that the entire communication technology industry could account for up to 14% of carbon emissions by 2040, one stark fact remains: the vast majority of electricity used in the world’s data centres comes from non-renewable sources, and as their numbers rapidly increase, there are no guarantees that this will change.

Climate Change & Global Warming

Earth Gauge Tip of the Week — The Benefits of Green Roofs

Earth Gauge Tip of the Week — The Benefits of Green Roofs

Pollutants build up on impervious surfaces until rainwater washes them into waterways, where they can harm sensitive habitats.
By blanketing a rooftop with vegetation, the plants and soils will trap, absorb and clean rainwater before it runs off into the environment.
Green roofs can: Reduce your energy costs – green roofs insulate buildings by absorbing heat and that reduces the amount of energy your home needs to maintain a comfortable temperature.
Reduce the heat island effect – in the dog days of summer, rooftop temperatures can be up to 90 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than the actual air temperature.
Learn more about green roofs: www.epa.gov/hiri/mitigation/greenroofs.htm.
And for more weather and environment tips, visit Earth Gauge!
(Sources: Elvidge, Christopher D., 2007.
“Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces.” Sensors: 7, 1962-1979; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
“Green Roofs.” Accessed Online May 22, 2012.
Image courtesy of the USDA.)

Climate Change & Global Warming

Climate Change Week in Review: Week Ending July 13, 2018

Climate Change Week in Review: Week Ending July 13, 2018

This week the General Synod of the Church of England announced plans to assess the progress of the companies in

Climate Change & Global Warming

Rising ocean waters from global warming could cost trillions of dollars

Rising ocean waters from global warming could cost trillions of dollars

Ocean waters are rising because of global warming.
In some places, humans will be able to build sea walls to block off the water’s rise.
It isn’t just the inevitable march of sea level that is an issue.
Climate scientists do their best to project how much and how fast oceans will rise in the future.
My estimation is that oceans will be approximately 1 meter higher in the year 2100; that is what our infrastructure should be prepared for.
If humans take action to limit warming to 1.5°C, they estimate sea level will rise 52 cm by the year 2100.
In the study, the authors considered which countries and regions would suffer most.
This is largely due to the fact that we don’t know how fast Greenland and Antarctica will melt.
By adaptation I mean making our societies less susceptible to sea level rise.
Too often, social scientists and economists with very little climate science understanding have tried to tell us that climate change is not a problem.

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