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Climate Change & Global Warming

Climate Change Week In Review: Week Ending November 17, 2017

Climate Change Week In Review: Week Ending November 17, 2017

The attention of climate change activists turned in a big way to the Amazonian rain forest this week.  The actor

Alternative Energy

Seven States Take Big Next Step on Climate: Here’s the What, Why and How

Seven States Take Big Next Step on Climate: Here’s the What, Why and How

Here’s why: First, this region has been successful at reducing emissions from the electric sector, but transportation is lagging behind, as this graph shows: All of these states have committed to economy-wide goals that will be impossible to reach without ambitious policies to reduce pollution from transportation.
Monday’s statement demonstrates that policy leaders understand that transportation is the next major frontier in the fight against global warming in the Northeast.
Second, a public conversation is necessary.
The states’ announcement shows that the states are serious, and that they are going about this in the right way.
In this regard, it is intriguing that on the day of the announcement, the states also released a white paper on one particularly promising approach—a regional “cap and invest” program.
A cap and invest program would build upon this region’s success with the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), which has helped to dramatically lower emissions from the electric sector while creating jobs and reducing consumer costs.
The program would set an overall cap on regional transportation emissions, require fuel distributors to purchase “allowances” for the right to sell polluting fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel, and re-invest the proceeds in improved mass transit, electric cars and buses, affordable housing located near transportation centers, and other proven ways to make clean transportation available to all.
(For more information on this approach, read my op-ed and the blog by my colleague Dan Gatti).
I encourage Union of Concerned Scientists members and the public to attend these listening sessions and publicly support a bold regional solution.
And I applaud the leaders of these states for taking a critical next step.

Conservation & Sustainability

U.S. lifts ban on some elephant trophy imports

U.S. lifts ban on some elephant trophy imports

On Wednesday, the administration of U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the remains of legally hunted elephants in two African countries can be imported into the United States.
In an informal statement, the U.S.
“This is the wrong move at the wrong time for protecting Africa’s wildlife,” said M. Sanjayan, CEO of Conservation International.
“What’s more, this move sends a dangerous signal to poachers and to our allies about the commitment of the United States to ending the trade in ivory and endangered animal products.” The past few years have seen seismic shifts against the ivory trade and the poaching that fuels it.
In recent months, China and the United Kingdom — two of the world’s largest ivory importers — have announced plans to close their markets.
Yet the trade endures, and in places that some might not expect: According to a report released earlier this year, none other than Washington, D.C., was judged to be the seat of the ivory trade in the United States.
Meanwhile, an African elephant is killed for its tusks every 15 minutes.
The rule change applies to elephants shot in Zimbabwe starting in January 2016, and to those legally permitted to be hunted before the end of next year, the Post reported, and a similar rule has been put into place for Zambia.
Fish and Wildlife Service, a move expected to occur later this week.
“I urge the Trump administration to reconsider this decision with full public comment and participation,” he said.

Food & Water

Iran Ensheab to trial Kamstrup’s water meters and remote reading system

Iran Ensheab to trial Kamstrup’s water meters and remote reading system

Iran Ensheab and Danish technology company Kamstrup have signed a partner contract and an agreement of two pilot projects to adopt smart water metering.
Under the contract, Kamstrup’s intelligent water meters and remote reading system will be trialled by Iran Ensheab.
Kamstrup SVP Per Trøjbo said: “We are convinced that remote reading and ultrasonic metering will be able to help to solve some of the challenges in the Iranian water sector.
“With the intelligence built into our meters, the Iranian utilities can reduce waste by utilising the possibilities of remote reading their meters.
In that way, they can also quickly identify where to optimise their network.” With the implementation of modern technologies and technical cooperation with Denmark, the Iranian Government is seeking to strengthen the water supply network and aims to reduce the entire country’s non-revenue water to about 15-17%.
The loss of non-revenue water in some areas of the country is up to 60%.
Per Trøjbo added: “In previous projects, we have experienced to half the non-revenue water by monitoring the network and detecting leakages, and we expect to see similar results in Iran.
“We are looking forward to introducing new technology to the Iranian water sector and help them optimise where needed.” The contract was signed at the Iranian Ministry of Energy where Kamstrup, along with six other companies, represented the Danish Water and Waste Water delegation.
Image: Signing by CEO Habibollah Tavasoli from Iran Ensheab Co. and Mikael Hansen, head of Distributor sales – EMEA & Asia from Kamstrup.
Photo: courtesy of Kamstrup.

Alternative Energy

Puerto Rico Gov. to Bolster Island’s Electric Grid With Renewables as Lights Go Out Again

Puerto Rico Gov. to Bolster Island’s Electric Grid With Renewables as Lights Go Out Again

Just this Wednesday morning, Puerto Rico Governor Ricardo Rossello sent out a tweet boasting about the island finally reaching a 50 percent power threshold after Hurricane Maria wiped out the electric grid 56 days ago. “Timing could not be worse.”
Puerto Rico’s power generation has dipped back to 48 percent and is another reminder of the island’s painstaking efforts to rebuild after the Category 4 hurricane struck on Sept. 20.
Now, Gov.
Business leaders and clean energy advocates such as Virgin Group CEO Richard Branson have said that renewables could be a solution to regions wrecked by damaging hurricanes.
Branson, who rode out Hurricane Irma on his private island in the Caribbean, is working with global leaders including the International Monetary Fund to help rebuild the Caribbean islands, according to the report.
As EcoWatch reported, one of Tesla’s projects was restoring electricity to a children’s hospital with its solar panels and Powerpack commercial energy storage batteries.
The beauty of such a set-up is that the hospital can generate power when the sun is shining and reserve it for later use when the sun is not out or, say, to help recover from a destructive natural disaster like a hurricane.
It was because of solar power that a 40-acre plant farm in Barranquitas in central Puerto Rico was able to slowly rebuild in Maria’s wake.
The island has several solar photovoltaic farms but gets about 46 percent of its power from oil and only about 3 percent from solar.”

Food & Water

EIB grants $75m loan to improve water infrastructure in Fiji

EIB grants $75m loan to improve water infrastructure in Fiji

The European Investment Bank (EIB) has agreed to provide $75m loan to support a new investment programme by the Water Authority of Fiji.
The $405m programme seeks to better protect water infrastructure against natural disasters in Fiji and strengthen the resilience of water distribution and wastewater treatment.
It will focus on improving current service levels, reduce leakages and enable quicker resumption of water supply following cyclones.
In February 2016, Cyclone Winston hit Fiji causing an estimated $1.4bn in damages across the region.
Signed at COP 23, the new 20-year financing is said to be EIB’s largest-ever loan in the Pacific and support for water investment in a small island state.
Fiji Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama said: “This welcome financing will be used with funding from the Green Climate Fund, the Asian Development Bank and the Fijian Government.” The water investment will benefit more than 275,000 people living in the capital city of Suva.
It will see the construction of a new water-treatment plant, upgrading existing wastewater treatment facilities and improving and expanding water networks.
“Small island states are vulnerable to a changing climate as witnessed by the devastation caused by Cyclone Winston in Fiji last year.
“We pleased to support transformation water investment on the island of Viti Levu that will benefit hundreds of thousands of Fijians and better protect key services from extreme weather.” The EIB has provided more than $40bn for water investment around the world in Europe, the Caribbean, Latin America, Asia, Africa and the Pacific in the last ten years.
Photo: courtesy of EIB.

Alternative Energy

Protestors Halt Trump’s ‘Clean Fossil Fuels’ Panel at COP23, Dismissed as ‘Promoting Tobacco at a Cancer Summit’

Protestors Halt Trump’s ‘Clean Fossil Fuels’ Panel at COP23, Dismissed as ‘Promoting Tobacco at a Cancer Summit’

Donald Trump’s attempts to promote so called “false solutions” at the UN climate conference in Bonn backfired badly Monday.
The U.S. delegation had organized the event, “The Role of Cleaner and More Efficient Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Power in Climate Mitigation,” to promote what many see as “false solutions” to climate change, such as nuclear, the misnomer of “clean coal” and carbon capture and storage or CCS.
It included speakers from, amongst others, Peabody Energy, the largest coal producer in the U.S. “The discussion needs to be not if we use coal but how,” argued Peabody.
However, the event was disrupted by activists singing a version of “God Bless the USA” and holding banners such as “We the people.”
Participants were also heckled and booed.
Just after White House energy adviser George David Banks began the introductions, hundreds of activists stood up and started singing lyrics that included the lines: “So you claim to be an American / But we see right through your greed / it’s killing all across the world for that coal money / we proudly stand up and tell you / to keep it in the ground.”
Collin Rees, a campaigner from Oil Change International who was in the room, tweeted: “Protestors just shut down U.S.-sponsored event on “clean fossil fuels” at #COP23—hundreds of people streaming out, singing & chanting.
Delegates lined up to criticize the event.
Tuaoi Uepa, a delegate from the Marshall Islands, called it “ridiculous,” adding, “There’s no such thing as clean fossil fuels … We can’t move to the future like that.”
Washington State governor Jay Inslee, a Democrat who attended the event, also tweeted that the world “has rejected @realDonaldTrump’s denial of climate science.”

Wellness

Calling all singles: This is the best city to start a new healthy relationship

Calling all singles: This is the best city to start a new healthy relationship

The struggle of landing a loving, healthy relationship is real, but maybe it’s just because you’re not looking in the right spot—or the right city.
WalletHub compared 180 US cities using 32 key indicators of dating friendliness—including the cost of meals at restaurants and how many singles live there—and identified which places are best for finding love.
Topping the list?
San Francisco.
While San Fran came in number one, Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Denver weren’t far behind.
And if you live in South Burlington, VT, which came in last, you might consider these date-breeding grounds for upcoming healthy travel plans.
Finding love is hard enough (even science says so!
), so having geography on your side sure won’t hurt your chances.
But taking note of how you communicate and the vibes you give off might help most.
Also, here’s how the dating app could be messing with your confidence.

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Conservation & Sustainability

U.S. lifts ban on some elephant trophy imports

U.S. lifts ban on some elephant trophy imports

On Wednesday, the administration of U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the remains of legally hunted elephants in two African countries can be imported into the United States.
In an informal statement, the U.S.
“This is the wrong move at the wrong time for protecting Africa’s wildlife,” said M. Sanjayan, CEO of Conservation International.
“What’s more, this move sends a dangerous signal to poachers and to our allies about the commitment of the United States to ending the trade in ivory and endangered animal products.” The past few years have seen seismic shifts against the ivory trade and the poaching that fuels it.
In recent months, China and the United Kingdom — two of the world’s largest ivory importers — have announced plans to close their markets.
Yet the trade endures, and in places that some might not expect: According to a report released earlier this year, none other than Washington, D.C., was judged to be the seat of the ivory trade in the United States.
Meanwhile, an African elephant is killed for its tusks every 15 minutes.
The rule change applies to elephants shot in Zimbabwe starting in January 2016, and to those legally permitted to be hunted before the end of next year, the Post reported, and a similar rule has been put into place for Zambia.
Fish and Wildlife Service, a move expected to occur later this week.
“I urge the Trump administration to reconsider this decision with full public comment and participation,” he said.

Conservation & Sustainability

Mountain Lion Captured In San Francisco Freed In California Wilds

Mountain Lion Captured In San Francisco Freed In California Wilds

San Francisco police and game wardens watched for hours for a young male mountain lion from the rooftops of a city neighborhood before bringing it down with tranquilizer darts.
“When I arrived the mountain lion was hunkered down,” Lt. James Ober, a game warden with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, told the San Francisco Chronicle.
“It appeared to be under a lot of stress.” It took two darts to subdue the 82-pound cat on Friday after it had been spotted prowling around the Diamond Heights neighborhood in the heart of the city.
Police stood by with rifles in the event of an emergency.
The animal, believed to be 18 months old, was masked and its paws secured with straps.
The Santa Cruz Puma Project at the University of California Santa Cruz fitted the animal with a tracking collar and ear tag before it was taken to the Crystal Springs open area in the northern Santa Cruz Mountains.
A mountain lion identified as P-22 has been spotted in Hollywood, and other pumas live in the hills around Los Angeles.
It was the first time a mountain lion was captured in San Francisco.
There were at least two mountain lion sightings the first week of November near the Presidio and Sea Cliff area of San Francisco.
There may be as many as 6,000 of the big cats in the state, according to the Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Conservation & Sustainability

Hurricane Harvey: When Rain Bombs Go Nuclear

Hurricane Harvey: When Rain Bombs Go Nuclear

Harvey will go down in history as much more than the first major hurricane to strike the U.S. mainland in more than a decade.
Harvey may very well be the very first “rain bomb” to go nuclear.
In Harvey’s case, the fact that the storm system stalled over Houston dropping a biblical level of water over the flood-prone region has imperiled a major American city, grinding its citizens, commerce and local government to a halt.
Sadly, the scenes beaming around the world of a water-lodged Houston and the resilience of a citizen flotilla reflect the inconvenient truth that our communities and very way of life are in the crosshairs of an increasingly tumultuous world.
As a choke point for the oil industry and other major sectors, the economic ripple effects from Houston’s 1 in 500-year flood event (where the water is still rising and it is the third 500-year flood in as many years) will be felt far and wide.
Events like Houston’s flooding call on a system-wide response and, unfortunately, like the ghost of hurricane Katrina that still haunts the Gulf, many questions will be asked about preparation for hurricane Harvey.
The first, with echoes of New Orleans’ ill-fated Katrina response, being the choice to not order an evacuation.
Water rising is widely excluded from homeowners’ insurance, as well as commercial property policies, which will literally leave billions in unfunded losses.
Early estimates of Harvey’s economic costs reach and will likely exceed the $100 billion mark, with the long-term impacts affecting the thriving city of Houston for years to come.
Where all risks, especially in a turbulent interconnected world, are increasingly complex to model mathematically, resilience provides a clear investment destination.

Conservation & Sustainability

Trees Tell Us Much About Fire: What Will We Do About It?

Trees Tell Us Much About Fire: What Will We Do About It?

Logging removed the most valuable and fire-resilient trees, such as giant ponderosas in the east Cascade slope.
Meet the Ponderosa Pine While no human has lived through the storied history of fire in the region, we can look to an iconic tree to learn about the impact of fire suppression.
Living with Wildfire When a ponderosa pine is young, it is susceptible to fire, but by the time the tree reaches 4 or 5 years, it has begun to develop a thick bark that protects it from low-intensity fires that may sweep through every few years.
These crown fires are the most devastating kind of fire for pine trees.
So, what can we do to reduce the frequency of catastrophic wildfires?
Such practices enable the continuity of jobs in the forest, while giving the ponderosa pine and other fire-resistant trees more room to grow.
After forest thinning, professional fire teams can conduct controlled burns under safe conditions.
Mimicking historical wildfire patterns is an important management strategy for ensuring the health, function, and services of forests, which will in turn help us adapt to a warming climate: Healthy forests mean healthy rivers and more plentiful salmon.
Healthy forests can hold snowpack longer in the winter and release it more slowly into the rivers in the spring, ensuring sustainable water supplies for people.
Healthy forests provide habitat for wildlife, recreational opportunities for people, and ecologically sustainable jobs in the woods.

Conservation & Sustainability

Syria is joining the Paris Agreement, leaving the U.S. alone in rejecting it.

Syria is joining the Paris Agreement, leaving the U.S. alone in rejecting it.

During the COP23 climate conference in Bonn, Germany, delegates from Syria’s government announced it will sign the Paris climate accord.
That leaves the United States as the only nation on earth to refuse climate action.
President Trump announced in June that the U.S. would leave the agreement as soon as it is legally allowed to do so.
That fact is so shocking it’s worth repeating: The United States is now the only nation on Earth not on board with working together to solve climate change.
Even rogue regimes like Syria and North Korea have taken time out from plotting mass murder to acknowledge the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The United States, which originally helped craft the Paris Agreement under President Obama, has historically contributed the most to the problem of climate change.
A recent independent analysis of current and pending climate policy placed it as one of the few countries “critically insufficient” to keep warming to safe levels — putting the world further off course and risking lives worldwide.
There are still signs of hope, however: A delegation representing hundreds of American mayors, university presidents, and business leaders have traveled to Bonn to reassure world leaders that at the local level, climate action in the United States is still full speed ahead.

Conservation & Sustainability

New Science Shows Nature’s Potential to Fight Climate Change

New Science Shows Nature’s Potential to Fight Climate Change

We have vastly underestimated the potential for nature to fight climate change, when combined with better stewardship and restoration.
New research from Nature Conservancy scientists and their partners indicates that nature can provide 37 percent of the emissions reductions needed to hold global warming below 2 degrees Celsius by 2030.
Tipping the Carbon Scale Carbon dioxide didn’t used to be a problem — but we’ve made it one.
A tree falls, and as it decays some of its carbon atoms dissolve into the atmosphere.
“Humans only impact a small portion of this ebb and flow of carbon each year, but the problem is that we only influence it in one direction,” says Bronson Griscom, the director of forest carbon science at The Nature Conservancy.
Human damage to nature — whether from deforestation, or agriculture, or development — creates about 25 percent of all human greenhouse gas emissions.
“And when you put the two together, you get powerful and natural solutions to climate change.” Natural Solutions to Fight Climate Change Griscom and a team of global scientists set out to create the most comprehensive to-date assessment of nature’s potential to mitigate climate.
Griscom says that this figure is more than 30 percent higher than previous estimates, both constrained and unconstrained, because this research filled gaps and included more natural pathways than prior syntheses.
“The three pathways with the greatest potential are reforestation, avoided deforestation, and improved forest management,” says Griscom.
Many of the 20 pathways have similar ecosystem service benefits.

LATEST FROMClimate Change & Global Warming

Climate Change & Global Warming

Climate Change Week In Review: Week Ending November 17, 2017

Climate Change Week In Review: Week Ending November 17, 2017

The attention of climate change activists turned in a big way to the Amazonian rain forest this week.  The actor

Climate Change & Global Warming

The Power Of World Kindness To Transform

The Power Of World Kindness To Transform

Today is World Kindness Day, a day introduced in 1998 by the World Kindness Movement a coalition of nations kindness NGOs.
It is observed in many countries, including Canada, Japan, Australia, Nigeria and the United Arab Emirates.
Spreading kindness can have such a big transformation in our daily lives – if we just took a moment to be present and intentional every single day, each of us can have the power to change lives.
Be kind to yourself.
Maybe treat yourself to a massage, or indulge in TV time without feeling guilty – this will make you feel happier and more at ease.
Call someone you haven’t spoken to in a long time.
Some of us pass by a homeless person every day on our way to work – on world kindness day, why not surprise them with a cup of coffee and a meal.
Leave a note to a friend or family member.
Smile at everyone you see.
Next time someone opens the door for you, say thank you with a smile.

Climate Change & Global Warming

Climate Change Week in Review Week Ending November 10, 2017

Climate Change Week in Review Week Ending November 10, 2017

This Tuesday saw a number of much-watched elections in the United States. Perhaps the most heavily covered election was that

Climate Change & Global Warming

Blaming city dwellers for buying things outside the city limits, because, climate

Blaming city dwellers for buying things outside the city limits, because, climate

These upstream emissions may occur anywhere in the world and are roughly equal in size to the total emissions originating from a city’s own territory, a new study shows.
“It turns out that the same activities that cause most local emissions of urban households – housing and transport – are also responsible for the majority of upstream emissions elsewhere along the supply chain,” says lead-author Peter-Paul Pichler from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK).
The planned emission reductions presented so far by national governments at the UN summit are clearly insufficient to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius, the target agreed by 190 countries, therefore additional efforts are needed.” Housing and transport cause most city emissions, locally but also upstream Cement and steel used for buildings take a huge amount of energy – typically from fossil fuels – to be produced, for instance.
If a city instead chooses to foster low carbon construction materials this can drastically reduce its indirect CO2 emissions.
Yet it can also turn down the need for electric cooling in summer which reduces power generation and hence greenhouse gas emissions in some power plant beyond city borders.
This reduces the number of cars that need to be built somewhere else, using loads of energy.
Comparison of New York, Berlin, Mexico City, Delhi – applicable to cities across the world Interestingly, while the greenhouse gas footprint in the four cities that the scientists scrutinized range from 1.9 (Delhi) to 10.6 tons (New York) of CO2 equivalent per person and year, the proportions of local to upstream household emissions as well as the relative climate relevance of housing and transport turn out to be roughly the same.
“The power of cities, open interconnected systems of great density, to tackle climate change even in times of uncertainty on the national and international level has been underestimated by both many local decision-makers and most of the international community,” says Weisz.
Today, we have this report from the UAH dataset that points out the heat has not left the lower troposphere (about 14,000 feet altitude) based on this report from the University on Huntsville’s Dr. John Christy.
Regional Weather A climate researcher at Cornell University, Remy Mermelstein has written an interesting and provocative paper showing the linkage between the Pacific Decal Oscillation (PDO) and the climate swings in the United States on a region by region basis.

Climate Change & Global Warming

Claim: Nations will come together over Arctic science

Claim: Nations will come together over Arctic science

From TUFTS UNIVERSITY and the “kumbayah” department Science can align common interests among the world’s leading superpowers (MEDFORD/SOMERVILLE) November 3, 2017 – International scientific collaboration in the Arctic can help align common interests among countries experiencing geopolitical conflict, including the United States and Russia, according to a team of scientists and educators led by a professor at The Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy at Tufts University.
Published in Science, the article’s strategic policy assessments build upon the Agreement on Enhancing International Arctic Scientific Cooperation that was signed in May 2017 by the foreign ministers of the eight Arctic States, including U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, despite deteriorating relations between their two nations.
The Agreement, also known as the Arctic Science Agreement, minimizes the risks that short-term domestic policy shifts will impact relations within the Arctic by cementing a consensus among the countries that will last beyond political cycles, according to lead author Paul Arthur Berkman, who is a professor of practice in science diplomacy at The Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy at Tufts and the director of the Science Diplomacy Center at The Fletcher School.
He added that the Agreement enhances the stability of research platforms across nations to interpret and disseminate previously inaccessible data, and will generate continuous data to interpret marine, terrestrial, atmospheric, and human-centered changes.
In effect, the Arctic Science Agreement enhances the capacity of all nations to integrate diverse data into evidence and options that contribute to informed decision-making for Arctic sustainability.
However, the authors provided several concrete opportunities for improvements needed for the Agreement to be truly successful, such as: Establishing procedures to expedite the granting of visas and permits for international scientists accessing field sites; Digitizing historic and other data from hard-copy formats and creating shared platforms for data that can be accessed throughout the world; Increasing support for field and summer schools and related means for training the next generation of Arctic scientists; Promoting well-formulated comparative studies designed to examine common issues at multiple locations across the Arctic; Maximizing the use of icebreakers (ships designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters) and other forms of infrastructure for scientific purposes; and Creating innovative venues that integrate natural and social sciences along with indigenous knowledge to address common concerns.
In addition, the authors explicitly call for scientific partnerships with Russia, considering the country’s sovereign rights extend over nearly half of the Arctic.
“Research partnerships with Russian scientists are critical for Arctic science and diplomatic progress,” according to the article.
Ultimately, the authors concluded that the Arctic Science Agreement should be used as a tool to facilitate research and build upon partnerships to conduct fieldwork, access data, and begin to answer previously unanswerable scientific questions, especially within pan-Arctic dimensions.
### To read the full paper, click here.

Climate Change & Global Warming

Study: A new method to evaluate overall performance of a climate model

Study: A new method to evaluate overall performance of a climate model

To fill this gap, an article published in Geosci.
Model Dev., presents a new multivariable integrated evaluation (MVIE) method.
The first level of metrics, including the commonly used correlation coefficient, RMS value, and RMSE, measures model performance in terms of individual variables.
The second level of metrics, including four newly developed statistical quantities, provides an integrated evaluation of model performance in terms of simulating multiple fields.
The third level of metrics, multivariable integrated evaluation index (MIEI), further summarizes the three statistical quantities of second level of metrics into a single index and can be used to rank the performances of various climate models.
“Inevitably, the higher level of metrics loses detailed statistical information in contrast to the lower level of metrics.” XU therefore suggests, “To provide a more comprehensive and detailed evaluation of model performance, one can use all three levels of metrics.” ### The paper: https://www.geosci-model-dev.net/10/3805/2017/ Abstract: This paper develops a multivariable integrated evaluation (MVIE) method to measure the overall performance of climate model in simulating multiple fields.
The VFE diagram was devised based on the cosine relationship between three statistical quantities: root mean square length (RMSL) of a vector field, vector field similarity coefficient, and root mean square vector deviation (RMSVD).
Therefore, one can summarize the three statistics of multiple scalar fields using the VFE diagram and facilitate the intercomparison of model performance.
We also propose a multivariable integrated evaluation index (MIEI) which takes the amplitude and pattern similarity of multiple scalar fields into account.
The MIEI, VFE diagram, and commonly used statistical metrics for individual variables constitute a hierarchical evaluation methodology, which can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of model performance.

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